"Although copying all or part of a work without obtaining permission may appear to be an easy and convenient solution to an immediate problem, such unauthorized copying can frequently violate the rights of the author or publisher of the copyrighted work, and be directly contrary to the academic mission to teach respect for ideas and for the intellectual property that expresses those ideas."
--from "Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community," copyright 1991 National Association of College Stores, Inc. and The Association of American Publishers.
We use the guidelines in the UNH Primer on Copyright Law & Recommended Procedures to determine whether to accept photocopied material to be placed on reserve or scanned for Blackboard. You can also find the information here. The relevant text of the primer is excerpted below.
Amount of copying allowed:
- one chapter from a book
- one article from a journal, periodical or newspaper
- one short story, essay or poem
- one diagram or picture in any of those works
- no more than one copy for each student (we suggest one copy per 20 students for reserve use)
- include notice of copyright on the top page (with citation information)
- no copying of or from works intended to be consumable in the course of study, i.e. workbooks, exercises, standardized tests, etc.
- copying shall not be a substitute for the purchase of anthologies, compilations, collective works or other books nor for publishers' reprints or periodicals
- copying shall not be repeated with respect to the same items by the same faculty member from term to term (the "Fair Use" justification is weakened in the case of photocopying on a repetitive basis for continued use in successive terms)
Notice of Copyright
You are required by law to provide notice of copyright on the first page of photocopied material. Copyright information in a serial is printed within the first five pages of the issue, usually near the mast head or on the contents page. In a non-serial, the notice of copyright is printed on the verso of the title page near Library of Congress information, preceded by the © symbol.
The best way to provide us with the copyright information is to photocopy the title page and the copyright page along with the pages to go on Reserve. You may write or type the information on the first page of each photocopy.
Circulation Desk staff use the guidelines set forth in the UNH Primer on Copyright Law & Recommended Procedures to determine if a photocopied article placed on reserve requires permission from the copyright holder.
When permission is needed, we pursue it for you. The Circulation Desk is a registered user of the Copyright Clearance Center. We refer first to their photocopying fee catalog and send any royalty fees to them for registered copyright holders. They undertake fee distribution to publishers. However, when the publisher or copyright holder is NOT listed with the CCC, we must send for permission in writing to whoever holds the copyright.
Permission to photocopy is most often granted by the copyright holder at no charge, or for a nominal fee. Occasionally they will grant permission for use "one time only". Sometimes permission will be denied--usually because the request violates Fair Use regulations in some way, or because the publisher wants to sell article reprints, etc. Small fees are automatically paid from the general fund. When a fee is outrageous or if permission is denied, the item must be taken off reserve.
More copyright information:
- The Copyright Clearance Center's Campus Guide to Copyright Compliance
- Copyright Law of the United States and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code (U.S. Copyright Office)
- Stanford University Libraries on copyright and fair use
- Yale University's copyright resources online
- University of Texas System resources, including their Copyright Crash Course